Information on EC 2.5.1.21 - squalene synthase for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC2.5.1.21. Search 16 grants from Ishaiahu Shechter Search grants from Henry M. Jackson Fdn for the Adv Mil/Med. Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. J:17237 Schechter I, et al., Localization of the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1) to human chromosome 8p22-p23.1. RNA from various mouse organs was analyzed by Northern hybridization to determine the response of squalene synthase (SQS) mRNA to dietary cholesterol, or lovastatin and cholestyramine, administration. Squalene synthase plays an important role in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway as it is responsible for the flow of metabolites into either the sterol or the non‐sterol branches of the pathway. SQS is a bifunctional membrane‐bound enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of squalene from two C 15 allylic farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) molecules in two steps. Squalene is spotlighted by its biofunction in clinic usage, such as antioxidant, antitumor, and cyto-protective effects (Kim and Karadeniz 2012). Rat hepatic squalene synthase (RSS, EC 2.5.1.21) contains three conserved sections, A, B, and C, that were proposed to be involved in catalysis (McKenzie, T. L., Jiang, G., Straubhaar, J. R., Conrad, D., and Shechter, I. The squalene synthase (SQS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid synthesis. The DSQ synthase (CrtM) found in Staphylococcus aureus affords DSQ (10) from squalene. Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) are catalyzed into a 30-carbon linear squalene molecule. Help. It is considered a molecule with pharmacological, cosmetic, and nutritional potential. SQS produces squalene in an unusual two-step reaction in which two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate are condensed head-to-head. Clinical studies have shown that squalene synthase inhibitors are effective in lowering plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL‐C. Squalene synthase catalyzes the cyclization of squalene which is synthesized by the coupling of two FPP molecules. GO ID GO:0051996 Aspect Molecular Function Description Catalysis of the reaction: presqualene diphosphate + NADPH = squalene + NADP+ + diphosphate. Catalyzes the condensation of 2 two farnesyl pyrophosphate moieties to form squalene. EC Tree 2 Transferases 2.5 Transferring alkyl … UniProtKB. 267, 21368–21374). The activity of squalene synthase is modulated both at the mRNA and at the protein level to regulate intracellular cholesterol levels (8–10). Protein knowledgebase. Squalene synthase EC (farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase) (SQS) and Phytoene synthase EC (PSY) are enzymes that share a number of functional similarities. The crystal structures of these enzymes have been solved and provide insights into the Help. x; UniProtKB. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Squalene synthase is the enzyme that produces squalene. Two size-classes of highly abundant mouse SQS (mSQS) mRNAs of … Squalene synthase (SS) represents a putative branch point in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway capable of diverting carbon flow specifically to the biosynthesis of sterols and, hence, is considered a potential regulatory point for sterol metabolism. On the other hand, complementation of yeast erg9 mutant strain 2C1, which is a squalene synthase-deficient mutant lacking SQS activity , provided direct evidence that despite the relatively low sequence homology to yeast SQS, these plant SQSs share the conserved function of squalene synthase with its ortholog in fungi. In vitro enzyme reactions manifested that CzSQS-pEXP5-CT/TOPO encoded a functional squalene synthase. Squalene (SQ) is a natural compound, a precursor of various hormones in animals and sterols in plants. Protein knowledgebase. When recombinant SQase was incubated with FPP in the presence of dihydroNADPH … This paper systematically reviews the metabolic mechanism, research achievements of SQS, and broad applications in biosynthetic pathways and human health. F. H. Chen, which is a used traditional Chinese medicine known as Sanqi or Tianqi in China, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the triterpene saponins. The cyclization reactions catalyzed by squalene cyclases (S-cyclases) and 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases (OS-cyclases) are highly complex and give rise to various fused-ring compounds (2, 3).Although these enzymes have been well studied earlier (2, 4), present-day recombinant techniques have contributed much to the understanding of their function and reactivity (1, 5). This message will disappear when all data is loaded. Required for the biosynthesis of ergosterol. The isoprenoid squalene is a 30-carbon pure hydrocarbon, the formation of which is catalyzed by the enzyme squalene synthase. Squalene synthase (SQase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to form presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement and NADPH-dependent reduction of PSPP to squalene (SQ). Sequence archive. Protein knowledgebase. Genomics. UniParc. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the conversion of two farnesyl pyrophosphates to squalene, an important intermediate in between isoprene and valuable triterpenoids. These similarities are also reflected in their primary structure. UniProtKB. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a critical enzyme in the triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway [15–17], which is responsible for condensing two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate into squalene. UniParc. Mice that do not synthesize squalene (deficient in squalene synthase) show signs of liver dysfunction and abnormal enlargement of the liver (due to increased farnesol production) [ 35 ]. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Sequence archive. Squalene synthase (SS: EC 2.5.1.21) catalyzes the first enzymatic step from the central isoprenoid pathway to … Panax notoginseng (Burk.) UniParc. The sharp decrease of squalene pool in the AM63 between 12 and 48 h could be due to a combination of factors such as squalene consumption and limited squalene synthase (Erg9p) activity partially caused by the level of ergosterol (M'baya, 1989; Kennedy, 1999; Kennedy & Bard, 2001). Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the conversion of two farnesyl pyrophosphates to squalene, an important intermediate in between isoprene and valuable triterpenoids. The reaction mechanism is analogous to that of squalene synthase (SQS), differing only in the final reaction: the proton elimination for CrtM and the nucleophilic attack of the hydride ion for SQS. Gene Ontology Term: squalene synthase activity. The biosynthesis of pentacyclic triterpenes requires squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) and squalene epoxidase (SQE, EC 1.14.14.7) as rate‐limiting enzymes. Help. The specific residues that line the pockets (Phe 288, Cys 289, Pro 292, Val 179, Leu 183, Tyr 73, Phe 54 and Leu 211) are predominantly hydrophobic and completely conserved in all known squalene synthase Squalene Synthase - Structure, Function and Inhibition Shechter, Ishaiahu Henry M. Jackson Fdn for the Adv Mil/Med, Rockville, MD, United States. While the function of squalene from wintersweet plants was deficiency. View protein in InterPro IPR008949, Isoprenoid_synthase_dom_sf IPR002060, Squ/phyt_synthse IPR006449, Squal_synth-like IPR019845, Squalene/phytoene_synthase_CS IPR033904 Structure-Function Linkage Database Squalene synthetase (farnesyl diphosphate:farnesyl diphosphate farnesyltransferase; EC 2.5.1.21) is thought to represent a major control point of isoprene and sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Synonyms squalene synthetase activity, squalene synthetase activity View GO Annotations in other species in AmiGO. To adapt to environmental stress and development, the accumulation of squalene is regulated at various steps of the biosynthetic pathway [ 18 ]. Mammalian squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first reaction of the branch of the isoprenoid metabolic pathway committed specifically to sterol biosynthesis. UniProtKB. Chem. (1992) J. Biol. Sequence archive. x; UniProtKB. The crystal structure of human squalene synthase is known. Squalene synthase in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step of the sterol branch of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway (Fig. Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephen A Bell, Thomas D Niehaus, S Eric Nybo, Joseph Chappell]. 1994 Mar 1;20(1):116-8 Latest products such as pentalenene (pentalenene synthase), 5-epi-aristolochene (5-epi-aristolochene synthase) and trichodiene (trichodiene synthase). In particular three well conserved regions are shared by SQS and PSY; they could be involved in substrate binding and/or the catalytic mechanism. It is the first committed enzyme of the sterol biosynthesis pathway. x; UniProtKB. 1994 Mar 1;20(1):116-8 Genomics. These reactions are the first committed steps in cholesterol biosynthesis. 1). The present review will focus on the chemistry, pharmacology, and lipid-lowering effects of novel squalene synthase inhibitors. 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